What Percentage Indian Do You Have to Be in Order to Be a Member of a Tribe or Nation?

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50 or 25 percent blood quantum or lineal descent, every tribe has its own criteria for mandatory percentage Indian

Tribal Nations are the only recognized arbiter of belonging to or being a member of a tribe. No other agency or arm of any government has that responsibility, other than the particular tribe to which a person claims to belong. Thus the issue of what percentage Indian is any individual belonging to a tribe?

Every tribe has its own membership criteria; some go on blood quantum, others on descent, but whatever the criteria for “percentage Indian” it is the tribe’s enrollment office that has final say on whether a person may be a member. Anyone can claim Indian heritage, but only the tribe can grant official membership.

The first blood quantum law for legal percentage Indian was passed in 1705 in the colony of Virginia in which laws were introduced to restrict the civil rights of Native people.

In 1924 Virginia passed the Racial Integrity Act, which required that every individual be classified as either white or black. Native Americans were erased from Virginia and U.S. history as their birth records were literally changed. The act has been lauded ‘pencil genocide.’

In 1934, due to the federal government’s Indian Reorganization Act of 1934 and the associated awarded lands, many tribes were forced to adopt their own sets of blood quantum laws.

Here is a list of some tribes that claim blood quantum / percentage Indian requirements:

(List courtesy NativeVillage.org)

50 Percent / One-Half Blood Quantum (One Parent)

Kialegee Tribal Town

Miccosukee Tribe of Indians of Florida

Mississippi Band of Choctaw Indians, Mississippi

St. Croix Chippewa Indians of Wisconsin

White Mountain Apache Tribe, Arizona

Yomba Shoshone Tribe, Utah

25 Percent / One-Fourth Blood Quantum (One Grandparent)

Absentee-Shawnee Tribe of Indians

Cheyenne and Arapaho Tribes

Confederated Tribes and Bands of the Yakama Nation, Washington

Oneida Tribe of Indians, Wisconsin

Kickapoo Tribe of Oklahoma

Pascua Yaqui Tribe, Arizona

Kiowa Tribe of Oklahoma

Prairie Band Potawatomi Nation, Kansas

Navajo Nation, Arizona, Utah and New Mexico

Shoshone Tribe of the Wind River Reservation, Wyoming

Fort McDowell Yavapai Nation, Arizona

Standing Rock Sioux Tribe, North and South Dakota

Utu Utu Gwaitu Paiute Tribe, California

Havapai-Prescott Tribe, Arizona

United Keetoowah Band of Cherokee Indians, Oklahoma

Fort Peck Assiniboine and Sioux Tribes, Montana

St. Regis Mohawk Tribe, New York, Canada

12.5 Percent / One-Eighth Blood Quantum (One Great-Grandparent)

Apache Tribe of Oklahoma

Comanche Nation Oklahoma

Delaware Nation, Oklahoma

Confederated Tribes of the Siletz Reservation, Oregon

Fort Sill Apache Tribe of Oklahoma

Karuk Tribe of California

Muckleshoot Indian Tribe of the Muckleshoot Reservation, Washington

Northwestern Band of Shoshoni Nation of Utah (Washakie)

Otoe-Missouria Tribe of Indians, Oklahoma

Pawnee Nation of Oklahoma

Ponca Nation, Oklahoma

Sac and Fox Nation, Oklahoma

Sac & Fox Nation of Missouri in Kansas and Nebraska

Squaxin Island Tribe of the Squaxin Island Reservation, Washington

Suquamish Indian Tribe of the Port Madison Reservation, Washington

Three Affiliated Tribes of the Fort Berthold Reservation

Upper Skagit Indian Tribe of Washington

Wichita and Affiliated Tribes (Wichita, Keechi, Waco and Tawakonie)

6.25 Percent / One-Sixteenth Blood Quantum (One Great-Great-Grandparent)

Caddo Nation

Confederated Tribes of Siletz Indians

Confederated Tribes of the Grand Ronde Community of Oregon

Fort Sill Apache Tribe

Iowa Tribe of Oklahoma

Sac and Fox Nation, Oklahoma

Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians, North Carolina

Lineal Descent

Alabama-Quassarte Tribal Town

Cherokee Nation

Chickasaw Nation

Choctaw Nation

Citizen Potawatomi Nation

Delaware Tribe of Indians

Eastern Shawnee Tribe

Kaw Nation

Mashantucket Pequot Tribe of Connecticut

Miami Tribe of Oklahoma

Modoc Tribe

Muscogee Creek Nation

Osage Nation

Ottawa Tribe of Oklahoma

Peoria Tribe of Indians

Quapaw Tribe of Oklahoma

Sault Ste. Marie Tribe of Chippewa Indians of Michigan

Seminole Nation

Seneca-Cayuga Tribe of Oklahoma

Shawnee Tribe

Thlopthlocco Tribal Town

Tonkawa Tribe

Wyandotte Nation

 

FATHER ATTACKS MAN IN COURT ROOM WHO BRUTALLY MURDERED HIS DAUGHTER. DO YOU SUPPORT HIM?

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CLEVELAND — The father of one of three victims of Ohio serial killer Michael Madison leaped over a table to attack the defendant in court Thursday just minutes after the judge pronounced a death sentence.

Van Terry is the father of victim Shirellda Terry. Shortly before the courtroom incident, Terry had approached the podium to address the judge and speak about the impact of his daughter’s loss.

Cleveland 19 News Cleveland, OH

“Right now, I guess we’re supposed to, in our hearts forgive this clown, who has touched our families, taken my child,” Terry said.

Terry then paused and turned to look behind him at Madison, who was sitting behind the defense table, before running towards the convicted killer and lunging over the table at him.

Cuyahoga County courtroom deputies wrestled Terry as Madison and others scrambled to get out of the way. The courtroom momentarily burst into chaos, as someone sitting in the gallery repeatedly yelled “No!” and someone else screamed, “Terry!”

Law enforcement officers dragged Terry from the courtroom. Madison didn’t appear to be injured.

Cuyahoga County Common Pleas Judge Nancy McDonnell declined to clear the courtroom, and after about a 15-minute delay, the sentencing hearing continued.

The outburst happened minutes after McDonnell sentenced Madison to death for the 2013 killings.

The bodies of 38-year-old Angela Deskins, 28-year-old Shetisha Sheeley and 18-year-old Shirellda Terry were found in July 2013 near the East Cleveland apartment building where Madison lived. Madison told police he strangled two of the women but couldn’t remember killing the third.

Thursday, McDonnell accepted a jury’s recommendation that 38-year-old Michael Madison receive the death penalty. She could have instead chosen to sentence Madison to life in prison without parole.

McDonnell said the horrific nature of Madison’s crimes far outweighed evidence presented in efforts to spare him, including an abusive and chaotic childhood.

The same jury convicted Madison earlier this month of multiple counts of aggravated murder and kidnapping.

Michael Madison

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Michael Madison EAST CLEVELAND POLICE VIA WOIO-TV
Any execution is likely years away because of lengthy appeals. In addition, Ohio currently lacks supplies of lethal drugs, meaning it’s unclear whether the state can even begin a new round of executions, currently scheduled to start in January and stretching into 2019.

The discovery of the bodies in 2013 drew national attention to the possibility that another serial killer like Anthony Sowell had been killing women in and around Cleveland. Sowell was convicted in 2011 and sentenced to death for killing 11 women whose bodies were found at his Cleveland home. The Ohio Supreme Court is considering whether to uphold his conviction and sentence.

Madison’s attorneys never contested his guilt at trial. They instead focused on saving his life by presenting evidence that Madison suffered lasting psychological damage from physical abuse as a youngster. There was testimony that Madison was abused by his drug-addicted mother, a stepfather, some of his mother’s boyfriends and family members.

“This history of abuse and his dysfunctional upbringing certainly doesn’t excuse what happened here but certainly provides a basis for understanding the type of person Michael Madison evolved into,” defense attorney David Grant told the judge Thursday.

The case began when a cable television worker reported a putrid smell coming from a garage shared by Madison at the apartment building. Inside, police found the decaying body of a woman wrapped in garbage bags that were sealed closed with tape. The next day, searchers found bodies in the basement of a vacant house and in the backyard of a home nearby.

Prosecutors argued both at trial and during the mitigation hearing that Madison deserved to die because of the circumstances surrounding the killings.

A death sentence “will send a message to the community that the strongest possible sentence will be imposed upon crimes of this nature,” Christopher Schroeder, a Cuyahoga County assistant prosecutor, told the judge.

Madison was classified as a sex offender in 2002 when he was sentenced to four years in prison for attempted rape.